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“Reason is the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by man’s senses.”
   ~ Ayn Rand, "The Objectivist Ethics", The Virtue of Selfishness

The method of consciousness at the conceptual level: how man integrates percepts into concepts and valid conclusions, to discover the nature of reality. Reason is unique to man, and is distinct from general problem-solving ability found in animals, because it operates in terms of concepts and not just percept, and is volitional. Man is not born with reason, but rather is born with the faculty of reason -- the ability to discover the method known as reasoning. The emphasis on method of reason is particularly important in Objectivist epistemology.

Reason depends on the use of logic. Ayn Rand defines logic as "non-contradictory identification."

“The faculty that perceives, identifies and integrates the evidence of reality provided by man's senses. Man's ability to extend the range of his awareness beyond the perceptual concretes immediately confronting him."”
   ~ NB, "The Psychology of Self-Esteem"

Further Reading

Epistemology Topics
Senses | Consciousness | Volition | Concepts: Unit, Concept-Formation
Objectivity | Knowledge: Context, Hierarchy | Reason: Certainty, Truth, the Arbitrary | Emotions